School of Medical Sciences

Things to know

Table of Contents

The Cranium

  1. To what does the term "skull" refer?
    The skeleton of the head, including the teeth, hyoid bone and ear ossicles.
  2. What is the skull minus the mandible called?
    The cranium.
  3. What is the term for the brain case?
    The cranium - so some confusion can occur with the word ‘cranium’.
  4. What is the rest of the skull called?
    The skeleton of the face.
  5. How many bones are there in the cranium (brain case)?
  6. Which also contribute to the facial skeleton?
    Sphenoid (by pterygoid process) and ethmoid.
  7. What are the junctions between the calvarial bones called?
  8. Are they all similar? Which one in particular is different?
    No. The parietotemporal (or squamosal) suture, which does not interlock.
  9. Which bone(s) contribute to the anterior wall of the posterior cranial fossa?
    Temporals and occipital.
  10. Which bone(s) contribute to the anterior wall of the middle cranial fossa?
  11. Which bone(s) contribute to the anterior wall of the anterior cranial fossa?
  12. Which bone(s) contribute to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa?
    Frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid.
  13. Which bone(s) contribute to the floor of the middle cranial fossa?
    Sphenoid and temporal (both petrous and squamous parts).
  14. Which bone(s) contribute to the floor of the posterior cranial fossa?
  15. Does the parietal bone contribute to the lateral wall of the posterior cranial fossa?
    Not really. Although there is a deep groove for the junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, because they lie in the attached edge of the tentorium the parietal is really excluded from facing into the posterior cranial fossa.
  16. What is the pterion?
    The REGION where the sphenoid and parietal bones meet in the temporal region.
  17. What is the asterion?
    The junction of the parietal, occipital and temporal bones just above and behind the mastoid.
  18. Where is the bregma?
    At the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures.
  19. Where is the lambda?
    At the junction of the sagittal and parieto-occipital (lambdoid) sutures.
  20. What muscles arise from the calvaria?
    The occipitalis and temporalis muscles.
  21. Which major groups of muscles insert into the cranial base?
    The back muscles - we usually refer to them as the muscles of the back of the neck.
  22. What is the diplöe?
    The trabecular or cancellous bone forming the middle layer of the calvarial bones.
  23. Which is the thicker, the inner table or the outer table?
  24. Name the main vessel supplying the bones of the calvaria.
    The middle meningeal artery.
  25. Where does it lie before reaching the bones?
    In the outer layers of the dura.
  26. Which bone in the skull does it traverse to enter the cranium? What is the opening it traverses?
    The sphenoid, through the foramen spinosum.
  27. From what artery does it directly arise? What vessel gives rise to that artery?
    The maxillary, a branch of the external carotid.
  28. Where do the veins accompanying the artery of the calvaria lie? Where do they terminate?
    They lie in the dura, accompanying the meningeal arteries and end in the pterygoid plexus immediately outside the foramen spinosum.
  29. About how thick is the dura mater?
    ½ - 1 mm.
  30. What type of tissue is the dura?
    Dense, regularly arranged fibrous connective tissue = aponeurotic tissue.
  31. What two main roles does the dura service in the cranium?
    As covering of the central nervous system and as periosteum.
  32. Which of these roles is not served by the spinal dura?
    The periosteal one, as spinal dura is separated from bone by extra-dural fat and veins.
  33. What is the generic term for the venous blood spaces located in the dura?
    The dural venous sinuses.
  34. Name the venous channel in the attached border of the falx cerebri.
    The superior sagittal sinus.
  35. Name the venous channel in the attached border of the tentorium cerebelli.
    The transverse (or lateral) sinus.
  36. What is the name of the intradural space containing the carotid siphon (internal carotid artery)?
    The cavernous sinus.
  37. Name four other structures found in, or in the walls of, that space.
    III, IV, V and VI nerves.
  38. What venous channels drain the cavernous sinus?
    The superior and inferior petrosal sinuses.
  39. What venous channels drain into the cavernous sinus?
    The ophthalmic veins, the middle superficial cerebral vein (and the sphenoparietal sinus).
  40. How is the pituitary gland related to the cavernous sinuses?
    Its lateral poles lie against the medial walls of the left and right cavernous sinuses.
  41. What is the tentorium cerebelli?
    The low, tent-like dural partition roofing over the posterior cranial fossa.
  42. What is the falx cerebri?
    The roughly sickle-shaped dural partition separating the two cerebral hemispheres above the corpus callosum.
  43. What is the diaphragma sellae?
    The dural covering of the pituitary fossa. A small opening in its centre allows the infundibulum to reach the gland.
  44. Is there cerebrospinal fluid directly about the pituitary gland?
    No, below the diaphragma sellae the CSF space is obliterated.
  45. What direction does the hypophyseal stalk (infundibulum) run as it passes from the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
    It runs downwards and forwards to the gland.
  46. Is the arachnoid mater bound to the dura mater?
    No. A smooth walled POTENTIAL space separates the two layers.
  47. Is the arachnoid mater connected to the pia mater?
    Yes, by the fine arachnoid processes crossing the subarachnoid space.
  48. What is the volume of cerebrospinal fluid?
    100 - 150 ml. Production about 500 ml/day.
  49. About what distance separates pia and arachnoid?
    2 - 3 mm.
  50. Would you like to have more questions on the cranium?

The Scalp

  1. What is the scalp?
    It is the investment of the calvaria.
  2. What particular characteristic distinguishes it from the immediately adjacent investing layers?
    It has dense fibrous loculated subcutaneous tissue similar to that of the heel.
  3. Define its anterior limit.
    The eyebrows.
  4. Define its posterior limit.
    The superior muchal lines.
  5. Where and how does it end at the sides of the head?
    Along the zygomatic arch and just above the ears, where the much thinned galea blends with the periosteum.
  6. Does it have distinctive regions?
    Yes. Hair bearing and "non-hair" bearing; (the scalp and forehead of lay terminology).
  7. What distinguishes such regions?
    The presence of terminal hair or its absence.
  8. Is that distinguishing feature found elsewhere in the body?
    Yes. Axillary and pubic hair and the beard and eyelashes and eyebrows are all terminal hair as in the hair on the nape of the neck.
  9. How thick is the scalp?
    5 mm
  10. Is it more or less uniformly thick?
    It is uniformly thick and of essentially similar thickness in men and women.
  11. How thick is the epidermis of the scalp? Is that thickness about average for epidermis?
    100 m m. Yes, that is average for the body.
  12. How thick is the subcutaneous layer of the scalp? How does that compare with the average thickness throughout the body?
    1.5 mm. Yes, that is thickness over most of the body.
  13. Mention THREE distinctive features of the scalp (or of major parts of the scalp).
    A Terminal Hair
    B Loculated subcutaneous tissue
    C Muscle superficial to the investing fascia
  14. With what other parts of the body does it share feature A?
    Face (in males), Axilla, Pubic and perianal areas, eye brows and eyelids.
  15. With what other parts of the body does it share feature B?
    The palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
  16. With what other parts of the body does it share feature C?
    The face, front of neck and upper chest. (The Dartos muscle in the scrotum is smooth muscle).
  17. What are the dimensions of Frontalis approximately?
    5 cm x 5 cm
  18. From what does Frontalis arise? In to what does it insert?
    The Galea aponeurotica; the skin of the eyebrows.
  19. How big is Occipitalis in comparison to Frontalis?
    Much smaller.
  20. Does occipitalis abut the midline on each side?
  21. What are the auricular muscles?
    Three superficial muscle slips running from the galea to the cartilage of the external ear near the cartilaginous external auditory meatus.
  22. What is the Temporoparietalis muscle?
    A fairly extensive sheet of muscle in the upper temporal region running from the ear upwards and forwards to the galea.
  23. What is the name given to the Frontalis, Occipitalis, Temporoparietalis and galea aponeurotica together?
    Epicranins muscle.
  24. At which layer does the scalp move on the cranium?
    At the layer of loose connective tissue between galea and periosteum (layer 4).
  25. Where is the galea aponeurotica firmly attached to bone?
    At the nuchal line (and, because it is much thinner, less firmly to the zygomatic arches).
  26. What layers and structures separate the epidermis in the temporal region from the parietal and sphenoid bones?
    Dermis, thinned galea, rather denser layer 4 (loose connective tissue), the temporalis fascia (representing a true investing fascia), the temporalis muscle and periosteum.
  27. What vessels supply the scalp?
    The supraorbital (medial and lateral branches). superficial temporal and occipital (assisted by the supratrochlear and posterior auricular).
  28. Which of them come from the internal carotid artery? Are they direct branches of the internal carotid?
    A supraorbitals and supratrochlear. No, they are branches of the ophthalmic a.
  29. Which of them come from the external carotid artery? Are they direct branches of the external carotid?
    The superficial temporal, occipital (and posterior auricular) are direct branches of the external carotid.
  30. How much of the scalp is supplied by branches of the ophthalmic artery?
    Just the forehead region. (The corresponding nerves (the supraorbital) supply right back to the vertex).
  31. Which arteries anastomose across the sagittal suture?
    The superficial temporals (thereby limiting the territory of the supraorbital arteries).
  32. What veins drain the scalp?
    Veins running with and having the same names as the arteries.
  33. Which drain to the internal jugular vein? How?
    The superficial temporals (thereby limiting the territory of the supraorbital arteries).
  34. Which drain into the external jugular vein?
    The occipital, posterior auricular and superficial temporal.
  35. What nerves supply the scalp?
    Cranial nerve V and cervical nerve 2.
  36. What parts are supplied by cervical nerves?
    The occipital region up to the vertex.
  37. What parts are supplied by cranial nerves? Which cranial nerve?
    The forehead back to the vertex and the temporal regions. Cranial nerve V, the trigeminal.
  38. Which major division of the 5th cranial nerve supplies skin of the temporal region?
    The mandibular division mainly (with a small contribution from the maxillary division anteriorly).
  39. How are the muscles of the scalp innervated?
    By the VIIth cranial nerve (facial nerve).
  40. Are there lymphatics in the scalp?
  41. Where are lymph nodes found close to the scalp? What are the names of the various groups?
    Around its lower limits, laterally and posteriorly. Preauricular, mastoid and occipital groups.
  42. Haemorrhage from the veins piercing the cranial vault (from, for instance, moulding of the skull during birth) is limited to the extent of a single cranial bone. Why?
    Because the periosteum is bound down tightly at the sutures and this type of bleeding occurs between the periosteum and the particular bone.
  43. Gashes to the scalp bleed freely. Why? How would you control the bleeding?
    Because the arteries are large and are tethered in the dense connective tissue of the scalp. Moderate pressure where the arteries enter the scalp.
  44. Infections of sebaceous glands in the scalp are very painful. Why?
    Because the pus is unable to spread far in the subcutaneous tissue and pressure builds up.
  45. Cuts in scalp in a coronal direction gape; those in a sagittal direction don’t. Why?
    Because the tension in the galea is from front to back because of the way the muscles are arranged.
  46. Is the scalp well nourished?
    Extremely well.
  47. Do the bald areas of scalp contain hair follicles?; sebaceous glands? sweat glands?
    Yes. Yes. Yes.
  48. Is there hair on the forehead? If so, what kind?
    Yes. Normal fine body hair.
  49. Are eyebrow hairs different from head hair?
    No. Both are terminal hair.
  50. Do you think you have learned enough about the scalp?

The Face

  1. What is the posterior limit of the face?
    The coronal plane immediately behind the rami of the mandible and in front of the vertebral column (plane C) and in the upper 3 cm the plane through the anterior surface of the sphenoid (plane B).
  2. What is the upper limit of the face? in anatomy? in lay terms?
    The eyebrows. The hairline.
  3. What is the lower limit of the face?
    The floor of the mouth.
  4. Name the reference blocks comprising the face.
    Orbital, maxillary, dental; upper nasal, lower nasal, buccal, pharyngeal and pterygoid.
  5. Name the three principal areas of contact between the face and the cranium.
    The frontomaxillary sutures; the frontozygomtic sutures; the pterygopalatine sutures (where, in effect, the body of the maxilla is supported from behind by the pterygoid process).
  6. What parts of the face have particularly thin skin?
    The eyelids (and the external ears, if we include them in the face).
  7. How much thinner than average is (i) the epidermis and (ii) the dermis in these areas?
    Both epidermis and dermis are half the usual thickness (that is, in the eyelids they are about 50 m m and 600 m m respectively).
  8. How thick and dense is the subcutaneous tissue in these regions?
    In the eyelids very thin and delicate with litte fat. (The subcataneous layer is absent in the pinna except in the lobes).
  9. How thick are the lips?
    12 mm.
  10. How thick are the cheeks?
    12 mm.
  11. Does the skin or subcutaneous tissue contribute most to the thicknesses?
    The subcutaneous layer is 9 - 10 mm thick.
  12. How is the extent of the lips defined?
    They are the area where the skin if FIRMLY bound to the deeper tissues.
  13. Are there external markings indicating the extent of the lips?
    The nasolabial folds and labiomental fold (mental = of the chin).
  14. What particular change in the firmness of skin attachment occurs on passing from the lips to the cheeks?
    The skin becomes somewhat more mobile in the cheeks, but not as free in the front of the neck, for instance.
  15. Is the beard different in principal from head hair?
    No; both are terminal hair with follicles extending into the subcutaneous layer.
  16. How much denser is the hair follicle population on the face (and scalp and neck) than elsewhere on the body?
    10 x.
  17. How much denser are the hairs on these parts than elsewhere?
    About 3 x (many follices are "resting" in a cycle measured in years).
  18. Are sweat glands more profuse on the face (and scalp and neck) than elsewhere on the body? why?
    At least twice as dense. The head and neck are the principal sites of heat loss. Hands next, then feet.
  19. What layer of tissue represents the investing fascia in the face?
    The periosteum of the bones of the face.
  20. Is the mucosa of the gums facing the vestibule of the mouth superficial or deep to the investing fascia?
  21. In what layer do the muscles of facial expression lie?
    In the deep half of the subcutaneous tissue.
  22. What is the posterior limit of this muscle group?
    The nuchal lines on the occiptal bone.
  23. What is the anterior (actually inferior) limit of this group?
    The chest for a few centimetres below the clavicle; (platysma extends to this level).
  24. What is the name of the muscle surrounding and contained in the eyelids?
    Orbicularis oculi.
  25. What is its action?
    It blinks the eyelids and more forcibly, screws them tight shut.
  26. What is the name of the muscle surrounding the mouth?
    Orbicularis oris.
  27. What is its action?
    It purses the lips.
  28. Where do your find the Buccinator muscle?
    In the cheeks, posterior to orbicularis oris.
  29. Is it a muscle of facial expression?
  30. What muscles arise from the zygomatic bone?
    Zygomaticus major and z. minor passing down into the upper lip.
  31. What muscles arise just below the infraorbital margin of the maxilla?
    Levator labii superious and levator labii superious alaeque nasi (alaeque = and also of the).
  32. Where does the Levator anguli oris arise?
    From the anterior surface of the maxilla BELOW the infraorbital canal.
  33. Why is there no "Levator labii inferioris?"
    The orbicularis oris opposes the depressor of the lower lip. These are ELEVATORS of UPPER lip and DEPRESSORS of LOWER lip.
  34. Locate Risorius, Procerus and Corrugator supercilii muscles.
    At angle of mouth, between eyebrows and under inner end of eyebrows.
  35. Can you name any other muscles in the face?
    Compressor naris, Mentalis, Depressor anguli oris, Platysma.
  36. Describe the extent of Platysma.
    From corner of mouth to upper chest.
  37. From which vessel does the facial artery arise?
    The external carotid artery.
  38. Is the first part of its course superficial or deep to the mandible?
  39. Where does it cross the lower border of the mandible?
    Immediately in front of the Masseter muscle.
  40. What is the inner canthus of the eye?
    The inner angle where the two eyelids meet.
  41. In its course to the inner canthus does the facial artery run superficial to, deep to or in amongst the muscles of facial expression?
  42. Name its branches arising near the angle of the mouth.
    The superior and inferior labial arteries.
  43. Where does the facial vein terminate? Does it ever lie deep to the mandible?
    In the internal jugular vein (usually having coalesced with the lingual vein). No.
  44. Name three separate groups of lymph nodes in the face.
    Parotid, submandibular; mental.
  45. To which group do the outer parts of the eyelids mainly drain?
  46. To which group do the inner parts of the eyelids mainly drain?
  47. To which group does the upper lip mainly drain?
  48. To which group does the lower lip mainly drain?
  49. Which nerve is sensory to the upper eyelid?
    Ophthalmic division of trigeminal (V1).
  50. Which nerve is sensory to the lower eyelid?
    Maxillary division of trigeminal (V2).
  51. Which nerve is sensory to the upper lip?
    Maxillary, V2.
  52. Which nerve is sensory to the lower lip?
    Mandibular divisiion of trigeminal V3.
  53. Which nerve is sensory to the dorsum ("leading edge") of the nose?
    The external nasal branch of V1 (via anterior ethmoidal).
  54. Which nerve is motor to the muscles of facial expression?
    Facial nerve (VII).
  55. Do you think that that is enough questioning about the face?

The Orbit

  1. Which bones contribute to the roof of the orbit?
    Frontal, sphenoid.
  2. Which bones contribute to the floor of the orbit?
    Maxilla, Zygomatic (and palatine).
  3. Which bones contribute to the medial wall of the orbit?
    Maxilla (frontal process), lacrimal, ethmoid and sphenoid.
  4. Which bones contribute to the lateral wall of the orbit?
    Sphenoid and Zygomatic.
  5. What bony elements bound the superior orbital fissure?
    Greater and lesser wings and body of sphenoid.
  6. What bony elements bound the inferior orbital fissure?
    Great wing of sphenoids, zygomatic, maxilla and body of sphenoid.
  7. Which bones bound the bony nasolacrimal canal?
    Lacrimal, maxilla and inferior concha.
  8. What bony elements bound the optic canal?
    The root of lesser wing and body of sphenoid.
  9. What is the diameter of the eye ball?
    24 mm.
  10. In which part of the orbit does the eyeball lie?
    In the anterior half (of its length).
  11. How closely does it approach the orbital walls?
    To within 6 mm.
  12. What is the bulbar fascia or Tenon’s capsule?
    The connective tissue lining of the fibrofatty socket for the eye.
  13. About which point does the eyeball move?
    Its centre.
  14. Name the two major refracting elements of the eye.
    The cornea and lens.
  15. What medium surrounds the iris?
    Aqueous humour.
  16. What medium surrounds the optic nerve?
    Cerebrospinal fluid.
  17. Where is the dura attached to the eyeball?
    Immediately medial to the posterior pole.
  18. Where do most of the nerves and arteries enter the eyeball?
    Immediately about the dural sheath of N.II.
  19. To what bony elements is the fibrous annulus (of Zinn) attached?
    The body, lesser wing and, by a small area, the great wing of the sphenoid.
  20. In what direction does teh superior rectus muscle run?
    Fowards and laterally, at an angle of 22½° to sagittal plane.
  21. In which quadrant of the eyeball does the superior oblique muscle insert?
    Postero-supero-lateral quadrant.
  22. Where does the inferior oblique muscle arise?
    Immediately lateral to the nasolacrimal canal.
  23. Where does it insert?
    Into the horizontal meridian immediately lateral to the posterior pole of the eye.
  24. Which muscle is innervated by the 4th cranial nerve? by the 6th cranial nerve?
    The superior oblique; the lateral rectus.
  25. How long approximately are the rectus muscles? How wide?
    40 mm; 10 mm.
  26. Name three nerves lying between the orbital roof and the fibrous annulus.
    Lacrimal, frontal and trochlear nerves.
  27. Name three nerves passing through the fibrous annulus. Which one of these has divided into two divisions?
    Oculomotor, masociliary and abducens nerves. The oculomotor is divided.
  28. Briefly describe the course of the ophthalmic artery.
    Through optic canal, along lateral side of optic nerve, over nerve at midpoint to medial wall, then forwards.
  29. Which nerve follows essentially the same course?
    The nasociliary nerve (but enters orbit through superior orbital fissure).
  30. Where is the ciliary ganglion located?
    Just lateral to optic nerve, several millimeters behind the eye.
  31. What type of neurons does it contain?
    Parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons.
  32. What structures does it supply?
    The smooth muscle of the ciliary body and iris.
  33. What type of tissue fills the interstices of the orbital cavity?
    Delicate fibrofatty tissue.
  34. Name the firm connective tissue structures forming the basis of the eyelids.
    The tarsal plates.
  35. What covers the deep surface of these structures?
  36. What muscle is found in the eyelids?
    Orbicularis oculi + levator palpebrae superiorus.
  37. How many rows of eyelashes are present in each lid?
    Two or three.
  38. Where are the tarsal (Meibomian) glands situated?
    In deep grooves in the tarsal plates.
  39. At what level does the upper lid lie in relation to this iris and pupil? At what level does the lower lid lie?
    Between the top of iris and top of pupil. Just at the bottom of the ribs.
  40. What is the vertical and horizontal extent of the conjunctival sac?
    About 30 mm each way.
  41. Name the structure about which the lacrimal gland is folded or clamped?
    The tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris.
  42. Do ducts arise from both parts?
  43. Where do these ducts open?
    Into the lateral half of the superior conjunctival fornix.
  44. Where are the puncta of the lacrimal ducts located?
    At the medial end of the rows of eyelashes.
  45. Where do the lacrimal ducts run?
    Within the substance of the medial palpebral ligament.
  46. Where does the lacrimal sac lie?
    In the fossa formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla.
  47. What is the direction of the lateral palpebral ligament?
    Forwards from the orbital margin.
  48. To what bony structure is the medial palpebral ligament attached?
    Over an area several mm in diameter on the frontal process of the maxilla.
  49. Set your own question and answer it.

The Mouth

  1. Which reference planes bound the mouth?
    3, 4, A, B and R (each side)
  2. Which reference planes bound the buccal cavity?
    3, 4, A, B, and P (each side)
  3. What are the functions of the mouth?
    Food and liquid intake; accessory air intake; articulation in speech; (investigating environment).
  4. Which muscles forms the foundation of the cheek?
  5. What is its nerve supply?
    The facial (VIIth) nerve.
  6. Which muscle forms the foundation of the lips?
    Orbicularis oris.
  7. About how thick are the lips and cheeks?
    12 mm
  8. What type of epithelium is found on the mucosa of the mouth?
    Non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium.
  9. What is the name of the region of the mouth bounded by the lips and cheeks on the one hand and the teeth and gums on the other?
    Vesibule of the mouth.
  10. What is the name of the region of the mouth bounded by the tongue on the one hand and the lower teeth and gums on the other?
    Linguo-alveolar groove.
  11. Which bones contribute to the hard palate?
    Maxilla and palatine.
  12. Name the five major bony elements of the mandible (three are bilateral).
    Head, coronoid process, ramus, body and alveolar process.
  13. Name the four types of teeth in the adult dentition.
    Incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
  14. Which belong to the "anterior teeth"?
    Incisors and canines.
  15. Which belong to the "cheek teeth"?
    Premolars and molars.
  16. How many roots on an upper permanent molar? What are their positions?
    3; lingual, mesiobuccal and distobuccal.
  17. How many roots on a lower molar? What are their positions?
    2; mesial and distal.
  18. Which nerves supply the upper cheek teeth?
    The posterior superior alveolar nerves (2 or 3).
  19. Which nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the gum immediately lateral to the upper molars?
    One of the posterior alveolar nerves (which doesn’t supply teeth).
  20. Briefly describe the course of the nerve supplying the upper incisors and canine.
    It curves downwards and medially from infraorbital nerve in anterior face of maxilla, passing just below the opening of the nose.
  21. Which nerve supplies the gum immediately lateral to the lower molars?
    The buccal nerve.
  22. Which nerve supplies the mucosa of the part of the vestibule related to the lower anterior teeth?
    The mental nerve.
  23. Which nerve supplies the skin of the lower lip and chin?
    The mental nerve.
  24. Which nerve supplies the skin of the upper lip and the related mucous membrane?
    The infraorbital nerve.
  25. Which nerve supplies the mucosa of the roof of the mouth (hard palate)?
    The greater palatine nerve.
  26. Which nerve supplies the mucosa of the floor of the mouth including that of the buccal part (anterior two-thirds) of the tongue?
    The lingual nerve.
  27. Which artery supplies the hard palate?
    The greater palatine artery.
  28. Which artery supplies the floor of the mouth?
    The lingual artery.
  29. Which arteries supply the upper teeth?
    The superior alveolar arteries.
  30. Which artery supplies the lower teeth?
    The inferior alveolar artery.
  31. Where does that artery arise?
    From the maxillary artery in the pterygoid region.
  32. Which lymph nodes receive lymph from the mouth?
    Retropharyngeal, submandibular and submental.
  33. Name the nerve supplying the muscles of the tongue.
    Hypoglossal (Cranial nerve XII).
  34. Where does it arise?
    From the anterior aspect of the medulla.
  35. How does it leave the cranium?
    Through the hypoglossal (anterior condylar) canal.
  36. How low does it descend in the neck?
    To the level of the great horn of the hyoid bone.
  37. What special features are there of the mucosa of the dorsum of the tongue?
  38. Is there a submucosa in the tongue?
  39. Which salivary gland opens into the vestibule?
    The parotid.
  40. Which salivary glands open into the buccal cavity?
    The submandibular and sublingual glands.
  41. Which gland has its duct opening near the second upper molar tooth?
    The parotid.
  42. Which gland has its duct opening below and behind the medial lower incisor?
    The submandibular.
  43. Which salivary gland has little mucus in its secretion?
    The parotid.
  44. What muscle forms the floor of the mouth?
    The mylohyoid.
  45. Where does its nerve supply arise?
    From the inferior alveolar nerve.
  46. Which other muscles lie in the floor of the mouth?
    The anterior belly of digastric; the geniohyoid.
  47. From which embryological structure does the floor of the mouth arise?
    The mandibular (1st) arch.
  48. From which embryological structure does the roof of the mouth arise?
    The maxillary process of the mandibular arch.
  49. Into which region does the mouth open posteriorly?
    The isthmus of the fauces (of the pharynx).
  50. Do you require any further questions on the mouth?

The Nose

  1. Name the planes bounding the lower nasal block.
    2, 3, A, B, and P (on each side).
  2. Which bones enclose the olfactory part of the nose?
    The ethmoid, with sphenoid behind and maxilla and nasal bones in front.
  3. Name the bones contributing to the external nose.
    Nasal bones and maxillae.
  4. Name two major cartilages of the external nose.
    Lateral nasal (from septal) and greater alar cartilage.
  5. What is the name of the region immediately inside the nostril?
    The vestibule of the nose.
  6. Which bones contribute to the nasal septum?
    Ethmoid and vomer.
  7. What other component contributes to the skeleton of the nasal septum?
    The septal cartilage.
  8. Which is the largest nerve on the septum? Where does it end?
    The nasopalatine; on the incisive pad.
  9. About how wide (from medial to lateral) is the frontal sinus?
    30 mm
  10. In which part(s) of the frontal bone does it lie?
    In the squama (underlying the forehead) and in the orbital plate.
  11. Where does it open into the nose?
    Into the anterior part of the infundibulum (c.60%) or immediately in front of it into middle meatus (c.40%).
  12. Which is the longest meatus?
    The inferior.
  13. Which is the shortest?
    The superior (or supreme meatus if present).
  14. What structure forms the lower part of the lateral wall of the middle meatus?
    The uncinate process.
  15. What structure forms the upper part?
    The bulla.
  16. Name the gap between these two.
    The hiatus semilunaris.
  17. Where do the posterior ethmoidal air cells open?
    Into the superior meatus.
  18. What do we call the region on each side from which the sphenoidal air sinus opens.
    The sphenoethmoidal recess.
  19. Which is the most voluminous paranasal air sinus?
    The maxillary sinus.
  20. Where does it communicate with the nose?
    In the infundibulum.
  21. What structures traverse the cribriform plate?
    The olfactory nerves and the anterior ethmoidal nerve and vessels.
  22. Name the cranial nerve supplying the nose?
    The trigeminal.
  23. Which area does its first division supply?
    The external nose.
  24. What is the extent of the olfactory sensory area?
    Over the superior and much of middle concha and opposing parts of septum.
  25. Name the branch of the maxillary artery supplying the nose.
    The sphenopalatine artery.
  26. Name the nerves supplying the superior and middle conchae.
    The posterior superior lateral nasal nerves.
  27. What type of epithelium lines the nasal cavity (except the lower vestibule)?
    Respiratory epithelium.
  28. Describe the nature of the nasal mucosa.
    Thick and vascular, with many glands.
  29. Which nerves supply skin of the external nose?
    The external nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve; the infractrochlear; and the external nasal branches of the infraorbital nerve.
  30. Which of them supply skin inside the nostril?
    Those of the infraorbital nerve.
  31. What areas of the nose are supplied by the anterior superior alveolar nerve?
    Small areas on the lateral and septal walls at the anterior end of the inferior concha and the floor between.
  32. What supports the mucosa of the lateral wall of the choanal part of the nose?
    The medial pterygoid plate.
  33. Which reference planes bound the choanal part of the nose in front, and above?
    Plane B and Plane 2.
  34. Which nerves supply this part of the nose?
    The posterior nasal branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion.
  35. To what structures are the lateral nasal cartilages attached?The