Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences

CFAR publications - tobacco

The Centre for Addiction Research builds on a strong track record of highly-respected and innovative research into tobacco use and cessation within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences.

Research topics range from work on high level policy to health promotion initiatives, strategies to access highly dependent groups and investigation of smoking cessation aids such as alternative delivery devices and mobile phone messaging.


Selected publications since 2005


NEWCOMBE, D. A. L. WALKER, N., SHERIDAN, J., GALEA, S. (2015). The effect of varenicline administration on cannabis and tobacco use in cannabis and nicotine dependent individuals - a case-series. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 6(2). doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000222

JEONG, S. H., NEWCOMBE, D. A., SHERIDAN, J., & TINGLE, M. (2015). Pharmacokinetics of cytisine, an α_4β_2 nicotinic receptorpartial agonist, in healthy smokers following a single dose. Drug Testing and Analysis, 7 (6), 475-482. doi:10.1002/dta.1707

WALKER N, FRASER T, HOWE C, LAUGESEN M, TRUMAN P, PARAG V, GLOVER M, BULLEN C. (2015) Abrupt nicotine reduction as an endgame policy: a randomised trial.  Tobacco Control 2015; 24:e251-e257 doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051801

WHITE J, WALTON D, WALKER N (2015) Exploring comorbid use of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol among 14 to 15 year olds: findings from a national survey on adolescent substance use. BMC Public Health, March 2015 15:233 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/15/233

PAYNTER J, GLOVER M, BULLEN C, SONIA D. (2015) An intervention to reduce the number of convenience stores selling tobacco: feasibility study. Tobacco Control, April 2015. http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2015/04/14/tobaccocontrol-2014-052045.abstract

BULLEN C, HOWE C, LAUGESEN M, McROBBIE H, PARAG V, WILLIMAN J, WALKER N. (2014) Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation: a quandary? Authors' reply. The Lancet. 2014;383:408-9. 

BULLEN C. (2014) Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation. Current Cardiology Reports, 2014 16:538 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11886-014-0538-8 

WALKER N, HOWE C, GLOVER M, MCROBBIE H, BARNES J, NOSA V,PARAG V, BASSETT B, BULLEN C. (2014). Cytisine versus Nicotine for Smoking Cessation. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:2353-2362. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1407764

GLOVER M, KIRA A, JOHNSTON V, WALKER N, BROWN N, THOMAS D. (2014). Australian and New Zealand Indigenous mothers’ report respect for smoking bans in homes. Women and Birth, 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871519214000900

GLOVER M, KIRA A, WALKER N, BAULD L. (2014). Using Incentives to Encourage Smoking Abstinence Among Pregnant Indigenous Women? A Feasibility Study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, November 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10995-014-1645-2

ROBERTS V, GANT N, SOLLERS III JJ, BULLEN C, JIANG Y, MADDISON R. (2014). Effects of exercise on the desire to smoke and physiological responses to temporary smoking abstinence: a crossover trial. Psychopharmacology, 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-014-3742-8

NOSA V, GENTLES D, GLOVER M, SCRAGG R, McCOOL J, BULLEN C. (2014). Prevalence and risk factors for tobacco smoking among pre-adolescent Pacific children in New Zealand J Prim Health Care, 2014 6(3):181–188 https://www.rnzcgp.org.nz/jphc-september-2014/

WALKER N, JOHNSTON V, GLOVER M, BULLEN C, TRENHOLME A, CHANG A, MORRIS P, SEGAN C, BROWN N, FENTON D, HAWTHORNE E, BORLAND R, PARAG V, von BLARAMBERG T, WESTPHAL D, THOMAS D. (2014). The effect of a family-centred environmental tobacco smoke intervention to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants: a randomised trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014 http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/24/ntr.ntu128.full

MARCK K, GLOVER M, KIRA A, McCOOL J, SCRAGG R, NOSA V, BULLEN C. (2014).  Protecting children from taking up smoking: parents' views on what would help. Health Promot J Austr, 2014 25:59-64 DOI: 10.1071/HE13029

GAUTUM J, GLOVER M, SCRAGG R, BULLEN C, GENTLES D, NOSA V, McCOOL J. (2014). Parental and retail supply of tobacco to minors: findings from a community-based social supply intervention study. Health Policy, 2014 117:120-127 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.02.004

BULLEN C. Electronic cigarettes (ENDS) section, Key findings on electronic cigarettes (ENDS) Treatobacco.net Society http://www.treatobacco.net/en/page_492.php

BULLEN C, KNIGHT-WEST O, O’BRIEN B, WALKER N. (2014). Evidence, not conjecture, should guide clinical practice and policies on e-cigarettes BMJ, 2014 348:g2008 letter in response to “detrimental effects of e-cigarettes on surgical outcomes & dangers of using e-cigarettes before anaesthesia” http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g2008 

KNIGHT-WEST O, O’BRIEN B, WALKER N, BULLEN C. (2014). Context on Use Is Needed Before Public Health Recommendations Are Made About E-Cigarettes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2014 46:e57-e58 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.03.008

BULLEN C. (2014). The role of electronic cigarettes for tobacco dependence treatment. Psychiatric Times, 2014 31 (1):3-14 http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/addiction/role-electronic-cigarettes-tobacco-dependence-treatment 

BULLEN C, HOWE C, LAUGESEN M, McROBBIE H, PARAG V, WILLIMAN J, WALKER N. (2014). Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation: a quandary? The Lancet, 2014;383:408-9 – Author’s reply http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS014067361460146X.pdf?id=aaa_kckTphvqK5zmiePqu



BULLEN C, HOWE C, LAUGESEN M, MCROBBIE H, PARAG V, WILLIMAN J, WALKER N. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2013 Published online September 7, 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61842-5

LI J, BULLEN C, NEWCOMBE R, WALKER N, WALTON D. The use and acceptability of electronic cigarettes in New Zealand smokers. NZ Med J 2013, 126(1375)

BULLEN C, WILLIMAN J, HOWE C, LAUGESEN M, MCROBBIE H, PARAG V, WALKER N. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:210 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-210

COWIE, N. GLOVER, M. SCRAGG, R. BULLEN, C. NOSA, V. MCCOOL, J. GENTLES, D. (2013). Awareness and perceived effectiveness of cessation treatments and services among New Zealand parents resident in highly deprived suburbs. New Zealand Medical Journal accepted 9 Jan 2013. (In press).

NOSA, V. GLOVER, P.M. WATSON, D, PAYTNER J, STEPHEN, J, TUTINI, R. Pacific peoples knowledge and beliefs about smoking cessation products and services. In Seve-Williams, N., Taumoepeau, M., Saafi, E. (2013). Pacific Edge: Transforming Knowledge into Innovative Practice. Health Research Council, 60-68, 2013.

GLOVER, M. HADWEN, G. CHELIMO, C. SCRAGG, R. BULLEN, C. GENTLES, D. NOSA, V. MCCOOL, J. (2013). Parent versus child reporting of tobacco smoke exposure at home and in the car. New Zealand Medical Journal. 126(1375)

JOHNSTON V, WESTPHAL D, GLOVER M, THOMAS DP, SEGAN C, WALKER N. Reducing smoking among indigenous populations: New evidence from a review of trials. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2013 doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt022. First published online: March 21, 2013

RENNER K, WALKER N, PARAG V, MCCORMICK R. Harm Reduction Text Messages Delivered During Alcohol Drinking: Feasibility Study Protocol. JMIR Res Protoc 2012;1(1):e4) doi:10.2196/resprot.1970.

WALKER, N., HOWE, C., BULLEN, C., GRIGG, M., GLOVER, M., MCROBBIE, H., LAUGESEN, M., PARAG, V., WHITTAKER, R. The effect of very low nicotine content cigarettes, used as an adjunct to nicotine replacement therapy, on smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Addiction 2012: ePrint: 30 Mar 2012, "Postprint"; doi: 10.1111/j.1360‐0443.2012.03906.x

GLOVER, M.P. FRASER, T. NOSA, V. (2012). Views of Low Socioeconomic Smokers: What will help them to quit?. Journal of Smoking cessation 7(10) pages 1-6.

GLOVER, M. GENTLES, D. CLAYTON-BRAY, L. SCRAGG, R. NOSA, V. MCCOOL, J. BULLEN, C. (2012). ‘Stickers: A popular health promotion resource, but do they have any effect?’ Journal of Health Communication. Education and Health 27 July 2012. Education and Health, Vol 30 No.4 2012, 103-107.



CUSSEN ,A., MCCOOL, J. Tobacco Promotion in the Pacific: the current state of tobacco promotion bans and options for accelerating progress. Asia Pacific J of Public Health, 23(1): 70-78. 2011

HOEK, J., GENDALL, P., GIFFORD, H., PIRIKAHU, G., MCCOOL, J., PENE, G., EDWARDS, R., THOMSON, G. Tobacco Branding, Plain Packaging, Pictorial Warnings, and Symbolic Consumption. Qualitative Health Research (in press).

MCCOOL, J., PAYNTER, J., SCRAGG, R. A cross-sectional study of opinions related to the tobacco industry and their association with smoking status amongst 14–15 year old teenagers in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 8 July 124(1338), 34-43, 2011.

NOSA, V., GLOVER, M., MIN, S., SCRAGG, R., BULLEN, C., MCCOOL, J., KIRA, A. The use of the ‘rollie’ in New Zealand: preference for loose tobacco among an ethnically diverse low socioeconomic urban population. New Zealand Medical Journal. 8 July 124(1338) ; 25-33, 2011

GENDALL, P., HOEK, J., THOMSON, G., EDWARDS, R., PENE, G., GIFFORD, H., MCCOOL, J. Young adults’ interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control. Nicotine and Tobacco Research May 26, 2011.

NOSA, V., GLOVER, M.P., MIN, S., SCRAGG, R., BULLEN, C. MCCOOL, J., KIRA, A. ‘The use of ‘rollie’ in New Zealand: Preference for loose tobacco among an ethnically diverse low socio-economic urban population.’ N Z Med J 2011; 124(1338): 25-33

SMITH, A., MCCOOL, J., PAYNTER, J., NEWCOMBE, R. Youth opinions of tobacco control measures in New Zealand: Do they care? Nicotine and Tob Res (in press).

LAUGESEN, M., GLOVER, M., FRASER, T., MCCORMICK, I. R. SCOTT, J. Nicotine e-cigarette cartridges can be sold as tobacco products.

NZ Med J 124(1328). 2011 WILLIMAN, J., FERNANDES, K., WALKER, N., BULLEN, C. Promotion of nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation services at grocery stores. New Zealand Medical Journal 2011;124(1333)

WILLIMAN, J., WALKER, N. SPINS: Supermarket Promotion to Increase NRT purchases. Auckland: Clinical Trials Research Unit, School of Population Health, University of Auckland; 2011. Report prepared for the New Zealand Ministry of Health.

WALKER, N., BARNES, J., BULLEN, C., GLOVER, M., HOWE, C., MCROBBIE, H., NOSA, V., VANDER HOORN, S., WILLIMAN, J., MCGOUGH, S. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of cytisine versus NRT in people that wish to stop smoking. BMC Public Health 2011 [in press].

GLOVER, P. M KIRA, A. MIN, S. SCRAGG, R. NOSA, V., MCCOOL, J. BULLEN, C. (2011). Smoking is Rank! But not as rank as other drugs and bullying say New Zealand parents of pre-adolescent children. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 22 (3), 223-227.

GLOVER, M., SCRAGG, R., MIN, S., KIRA, A., NOSA, V., MCCOOL, J., BULLEN, C. Driving kids to smoke? Children’s reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation. Addictive Behaviours. 36(11):1027-31, 2011.

THOMPSON, T., GLOVER, M., WALKER, N. Cytisine’s potential to be used as a traditional healing method to help indigenous people stop smoking: A qualitative study with Māori. Nic Tob Res 2011. 13(5), 353–360.

WALKER, N., HOWE, C., GRIGG, M., BULLEN, C., GLOVER, M., VANDER HOORN, S., MCROBBIE, H., LAUGESEN, M., WHITTAKER, R., RODGERS, A. Does improved access and greater choice of nicotine replacement therapy affect smoking cessation success? Findings from a randomised controlled trial. Addiction 2011 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03419.x.

WALKER, N., HOWE, C., BULLEN, C., GRIGG, M., GLOVER, M., MCROBBIE, H., LAUGESEN, M., VANDER HOORN, S., WHITTAKER, R. Study protocol for a randomised trial of nicotine-free cigarettes as an adjunct to usual NRT-based cessation practice in people who wish to stop smoking. BMC Public Health 2011, 11:37: doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-37.

BULLEN, C., HOWE, C., LIN, R-B., GRIGG, M., LAUGESON, M., MCROBBIE, H., GLOVER, M., WALKER, N., WALLACE-BELL, M., WHITTAKER, R. Pre-cessation nicotine replacement therapy. Pragmatic randomised trial. Addiction 2010; 105(8):1474-83.

BARNES, J., DONG, CY., WHITE, A., WALKER, N., STEAD, L. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001008. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001008.pub2

JOHNSTON, J.,WALKER, N., THOMAS, D.,GLOVER, M.,CHANG, A.,BULLEN, C., MORRIS, P.,BROWN, N.,VANDER HOORN, S., BORLAND, R., SEGAN, C., TRENHOLME, A.,MASON, T., FENTON, D., ELLIS, K. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:114

WATSON, D., BULLEN, C., GLOVER, M., MCROBBIE, H., PARAG, V., WALKER, N. Impact on quit attempts of mailed general practitioner ‘brief advice’ letters plus nicotine replacement therapy vouchers. J Primary Health Care 2010; 2(1): 4-10

SCRAGG, R., GLOVER, M., PAYNTER, J., WONG, G., MCCOOL, J. Association of Parent and Best Friend Smoking with Stage of Adolescent Tobacco Smoking. NZMJ 26 November 2010, Vol 123 No 1326;

MCCOOL, J., CAMERON, L., ROBINSON, E. Do parents have any control over how young people appraise smoking images in media? Journal of Adolescent Health 6 (12), 2010

SCRAGG, R., GLOVER, M., PAYNTER, J., WONG, G., MCCOOL, J. Association of Parent and Best Friend Smoking with Stage of Adolescent Tobacco Smoking. New Zealand Medical Journal. 123,(1326), 77-87, 2010.

GLOVER, M., SCRAGG, R., NOSA, V., MCCOOL, J., KIRI, A. Keeping Kids Smokefree: Rationale, design and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to smoking among Māori and Pacific Island children in New Zealand. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 30(3), 205-222, 2009-2010.

LAUGESEN, M.,GLOVER, M., FRASER, T., MCCORMICK, R. AND SCOTT, J. Four policies to end the sale of cigarettes and smoking tobacco in New Zealand by 2020. New Zealand Medical Journal 123(1314): 55-65. 2010



WALKER, N., BULLEN, C., MCROBBIE, H. Reduced nicotine cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation. Nic Tob Control 2009; doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp147

MCROBBIE, H., BULLEN, C., WALKER, N., WHITTAKER, R., GLOVER, M., FRASER, T. New Zealand smoking cessation guidelines. NZ Med J 2008;121:57-70. http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1276/3117/

WONG, G., GLOVER, M., NOSA, V., FREEMAN, B., PAYNTER, J., SCRAGG, R. Young People, Money, and access to tobacco. The New Zealand Medical Journal 120(1267) 1-10. 2007

GLOVER, M., PAYNTER, J., WONG, G., SCRAGG, R., NOSA, V., FREEMAN, B. Parental attitudes towards the uptake of smoking by children. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 17(2) 128-133.2006

MCCOOL, J., FREEMAN, B., THOMSON, G., PAUL, S. Public and media responses to the first tobacco litigation trial in New Zealand (Pou versus BAT). Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, Issue 34: 152-162.2009

BULLEN, C., WHITTAKER, R., WALKER, N., WALLACE-BELL, M. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: Findings from a pilot study. Tob Induced Dis 2006; 3(2): 35-40.

MCCORMICK, I. R. N., SELLMAN, D. ROBINSON, G. Where to next with tobacco smokers. New Zealand Medical Journal 119(1238). 2006

MCCOOL, J. P., CAMERON, L.D., PETRIE, K. J. The influence on smoking imagery on the smoking intentions of young people: testing a media interpretation model. Journal of Adolescent Health; 36 (6): pp: 475-485.